Wednesday, December 1, 2010

What is Management?

Management is a vital aspect of the economic life of man, which is an organized
group activity. A central directing and controlling agency is indispensable for a
business concern. The productive resources – material, labour, capital etc. are
entrusted to the organizing skill, administrative ability and enterprising initiative of
the management. Thus, management provides leadership to a business enterprise.
Without able managers and effective managerial leadership the resources of
production remain merely resources and never become production. Under competitive
economy and ever-changing environment the quality and performance of managers
determine both the survival as well as success of any business enterprise.
Management occupies such an important place in the modern world that the welfare
of the people and the destiny of the country are very much influenced by it.
“Management is the process of getting things done through the efforts of other people
in order to achieve the predetermined objectives of organization”.
Management may also be define as:
“The process by which execution of given purpose put into operation and supervise”.
A concise statement:
“The function of executive leadership anywhere”.
Another statement:
Management may be defined as “A technique by which the purpose and objectives of
particular human group are determined, defined, clarified and completed”
From business Pont of view:
“Management is the art of securing maximum results with the minimum of efforts so
as to get maximum prosperity and happiness for both employer and employee and
give public the best possible service”.
Complete definition of management:
“Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, staffing,
leading and controlling utilizing both in each science and art and followed in order to
accomplish predetermined objectives of the organization”.
Entity identity
Management is a distinct process consisting of
Planning Organizing Staffing Leading Controlling
Applied to
Efforts of a group of people to utilize effective available recourses
Man Money Material Method Machine
In order to achieve predetermined objectives of an organization
Necessity of Management:
(1) Management is an essential activity of all organizational level
(Low, middle, and upper level)
(2) Management applies to:
(i) Small and large Organizations.
(ii) Profit and non profit Organization.
(iii) Manufacturing Organization.
(iv) Service rendering Organization.
Manager is also known as leader and administrative, Manager is a person who under
take the tasks and function of managing at any level, in any kind of enterprise.
Managerial Skills:
There are four skills of managers are expected to have ability of:
(1) Technical skills:
Technical skills that reflect both an understanding of and a proficiency in a
specialized field. For example, a manager may have technical skills in accounting,
finance, engineering, manufacturing, or computer science.
Human Skills:
Human skills are skills associated with manager’s ability to work well with others,
both as a member of a group and as a leader who gets things done through other.
Concept Skills:
Conceptual skills related to the ability to visualize the organization as a whole,
discern interrelationships among organizational parts, and understand how the
organization fits into the wider context of the industry, community, and world.
Conceptual skills, coupled with technical skills, human skills and knowledge base,
are important ingredients in organizational performance.
Design Skills:
It is the ability to solve the problems in ways that will benefit the enterprise.
Managers must be able to solve the problems.
The Skills vary at different levels:
Skills of management at different levels.
The Function of Managers: There are five functions of managers: Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Leading, and Controlling. The functions of managers provide a useful structure for organizing management knowledge. (1) Planning: Planning involves selecting missions and objectives and the action to achieve them it requires decision making, that choosing future courses of action from among alternatives. There are five types of planning: 1. Missions and objectives. 2. Strategies and polices. 3. Procedures and rules. 4. Programs. 5. Budgets. (2) Organizing Organizing is the part of managing that involves establishing an intentional structure of roles for people to fill in an organization. The purpose of an organization structure is to creating an environment helpful for human performance. It is then management tools and not an end. Although the structure must define the task to be done, the rules so established must also be designed in the light of the abilities and motivations of the people available designing an effective organization structure is not an easy managerial task.Many problems arises in making structures fit situations. (3) Staffing Staffing involves filling and keeping filled, the positions in the organization. This is done by identifying the work force requirement inventorying the people available and recruiting, selecting, placing, promoting, appraising, planning the careers, compensating and training. (4) Leading Leading is influence people so that they will contribute to organization and group goals. All managers would agree that most problems arises from peoples desires and problems , their behavior as individuals and in groups and that effective managers also need to be effective leaders. Leading involves motivation, leadership styles and approaches and communications. (5) Controlling: Controlling is measuring and correcting individuals and organizational performance. It involves measuring performance against goals and plans, showing where the deviations from standards exit and helping to correct them. In short controlling facilitates the accomplishment of plans.Controll activity generally relate to the measurement of achievement. Some means of controlling like the budget for expenses, inspection, record of labors-hours lost, are generally familiar. Each shows whether plans are working out.


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