Thursday, December 2, 2010

ORGANIZATION

INTRODUCTION

Organization involves division of work among people whose efforts must be coordinate

To achieve specific objectives and to implement pre-determined strategies.

Organization is the foundation upon which the whole structure of management is

built? It is the backbone of management. After the objectives of an enterprise are

determined and the plan is Prepared, the next step in the management process is to

organize the activities of the Enterprise to execute the plan and to attain the objectives

of the enterprise. The term Organization is given a variety of interpretations. In any

case, there are two broad ways in which the term is used. In the first sense,

organization is understood as a dynamic process and a managerial activity which is

necessary for bringing people together and tying them together in the pursuit of

common objectives. When used in the other sense, Organization refers to the structure

of relationships among positions and jobs which is Built up for the realizations of

common objectives. Without organizing managers cannot function as managers.

Organization is concerned with the building, developing and maintaining of a

structure of working relationships in order to accomplish the objectives of the

enterprise. Organization means the determination and assignment of duties to People,

and also the establishment and the maintenance of authority relationships among

these grouped activities. It is the structural framework within which the various

efforts are coordinated and related to each other. Sound organization contributes

greatly to the Continuity and success of the enterprise. The distinguished industrialist

of America, Andrew Carnegie has shown his confidence in organization by stating

that: "Take away our factories, take away our trade, our avenues of transportation, our

money, leave nothing but our organization, and in four years we shall have reestablished

ourselves." That shows the significance of managerial skills and

organization. However, good organization structure does not by itself produce good

performance. But a poor organization structure makes good performance impossible,

no matter how good the individual may be.

The term 'Organization' connotes different things to different people. Many writers

have attempted to state the nature, characteristics and principles of organization in their own way. It can be used as a group of persons working together or as a structure

of relationships or as a process of management. Now, let us analyze some of the

important definition of organizing or organization, and understand the meaning of

organization.

ACCORDING TO SHELDON

"Organization is the process of so combining the work which individuals or groups

have to perform with facilities necessary for its execution, that the duties so

performed provide the best channels for efficient, systematic, positive and

coordinated application of available effort."

In the words of Chester I Bernard, "Organization is a system of co-operative activities

of two or more persons."

MC FERLAND HAS DEFINED

Organisation as, "an identifiable group of people contributing their efforts towards the

attainment of goals".

ACCORDING TO LOUIS A ALLEN,

"Organisation is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed,

defining and delegating responsibility and authority, and establishing Relationships

for the purpose of enabling people to work most effectively together in accomplishing

objectives.

ACCORDING TO NORTH WHITEHEAD

Organisation is the adjustment of diverse elements, so that their mutual relationship

may exhibit more pre-determined quality.

IN THE WORDS OF THEO HAIMANN

Organizing is the process of defining and grouping the activities of the enterprise and

establishing the authority relationships among them. In performing the organizing

function, the manager defines, departmentalizes and assigns activities so that they can

be most effectively executed.

IN THE WORDS OF MOONEY AND RAILEY,

"Organisation is the form of every human association for the attainment of a common

purpose.”

ACCORDING TO JOHN M PFIFFNER AND FRANK P SHERWOOD,

"Organisation is the pattern of ways in which large number of people, too many to

have intimate face-to-face contact with all others, and engaged in a complexity of

tasks, relate themselves to each other in the conscious, systematic establishment and

accomplishment of mutually agreed purposes.”

Ditulis Oleh : Naz Nazir // Thursday, December 02, 2010
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