Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Chester Barnard (1886 – 1961):

He president of New Jersey Bell Telephone Company, introduced the idea of the
informal organization —cliques (exclusive groups of people) that
naturally form within a company. He felt that these informal
organizations provided necessary and vital communication functions for
the overall organization and that they could help the organization
accomplish its goals. Barnard felt that it was particularly important for managers to
develop a sense of common purpose where a willingness to cooperate is strongly
encouraged. He is credited with developing the acceptance theory of management,
which emphasizes the willingness of employees to accept that mangers have
legitimate authority to act. Barnard felt that four factors affected the willingness of
employees to accept authority:
 The employees must understand the communication.
 The employees accept the communication as being consistent with the
organization’s purposes.
 The employees feel that their actions will be consistent with the needs and desires
of the other employees.
 The employees feel that they are mentally and physically able to carry out the
 Barnard’s sympathy for and understanding of employee needs positioned him as a
bridge to the behavioral school of management, the next school of thought to


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