Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Management defined

Perceptive of Managers:
There are many definitions of management but most perceptive managers are
convinced that it is an organized effort of people whose purpose is to achieve the
objectives and goals of an organization. Of course, it is not that simple. To gain a
better understanding of management, let’s review the ideas and views expressed by academicians and practitioners.
Management as a “Process”:
McFardland defines management as “A process by which managers create, direct,
maintain and operate purposive organization through systematic, coordinated, cooperative
human efforts”.
An important tern in this definition is “Process”. This term emphasis the dynamic or
on going nature of management, an activity over varying span of time. The dynamic
nature implies that change is reality of organizational life.
In managing organizations, managers create changes adopt organizations to changes
and implement changes successfully in their organizations. Businesses fail and
become bankrupt because managers fail in their attempt to cope with the change.
Management as “coordination”:
Donally, Gibson and Ivancevich also support the view of management as a process
but their stress in more on co-ordination. According to them, “Management is a
process by which individual and group effort is coordinated towards group goals”.
In order to achieve goals, coordination is essential and management involves securing
and maintaining this coordination.
This coordination effort is also stressed in the definition of Koontz and O’Donnell.
According to them, “Management is a process of designing and maintaining an
environment in which, individuals, working together in groups efficiently and
effectively accomplish group goals”.
Management as a “Function”:
There are those who view management as a function rather than a process. Dunn,
Stephens and Kelly contend that “Management is a role which includes a set of
duties, responsibilities, and relationships-involved in work organizations”.
These duties and responsibilities constitute the function a manager performs. The
duties and responsibilities a manager performs are quite different from those
performed by managerial employees.
Management is getting things done through other people:
A simple definition of management that is often quoted and it sounds very simple.
According to this definition, managers do not do things they get other people to do
things. If managing is an individual ability to get things done, then it is not a problem.
We can plan and perform things according to our own convince and interests. When
somebody else is involved and wants to get things done through them, there is a
difficulty. All sorts of problems arise; personalities come into contact and conflict.
Interpersonal problems crop up. We have to understand the behavior of other people
and must have knowledge as to how to motivate them in order to get things done
through them. We have to consider the conveniences and interest of others also in
planning and implementing things.
In getting things done through others, people have to be coaxed, they have to be
shown, they have to inspired, they have to be motivated and this is what management
means. These activities are performed not only by the people at the top but from the
chairman of the board to the front line supervisors and foremen. They use the above
mentioned methods to get things done through other people.
A comprehensive definition of Management:
In mid 1940s, academic people from various business schools in the United States
gathered together with the sole purpose of deciding whether a definition of
management could be written that businessmen would accept and practice and academicians would teach. Ultimately they came up with the fallowing definition. No
individual is identified with this definition.
The definition reads;
“Management is guiding human and physical resources into a dynamic organization
units that attain their objectives to the satisfaction of those served and with the high
degree of moral and sense of attainment on the part of those rendering the services”.


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